The Lives of Animals written by J.M. Coetzee is discusses the bases and the ethics of social morality, in this case, in regard to the mistreatment of certain individuals or species that lack of either physical, racial, religious or genetic resemblance to certain groups on which the power lays, leading to violence. Coetzee aims to the use his mother’s sympathy, but nonetheless our hypocrisy towards animals and the cruelty and sadism that is the foundation of our relationship with them. Initially, Costello who is the author’s mother, compares and contrast the event of the Holocaust in World War II with the abuses and exploitation of animals. For instance, Elizabeth’s ideals to show us how the connotation given to animals reflect our society, the dehumanization and mass industrialized murder of the Jews in the concentration camps by Nazi Germany is contrasted with the treatment of ‘beasts’ in the meet industry and how similar the views of the people ‘who didn’t know’ or didn’t want to know the brutal reality of the camps is similar to those who ignores the aimless abuses committed by the meat industry or society in general just because society “could not afford to know, for their own sake”(19). In other words, the use of animals can be utilized to represent certain behavioral patterns present within our society that have affected us individually and collectively, because animals aren’t usually seen as equal, therefore their mistreatments are justified as certain behaviors have been justified int the past, and will be justified in the future.
On the other hand, the author brings up the feelings of superiority that humans portray towards others are based upon our ‘use of reason’ as a primary source for social and collective success. However, the lack of proper reason which supposedly is the human distinction that we as society claims as our strength is the real problem and the origin of our mistreatment and abuses to those who are exponentially weaker to our ‘reason’. It is also worth mentioning the misconception we have of the mental capacities of animals to understand their environment, adapt to it and their response to certain situations. Such is the case of Sultan, which is an ape exposed to scientific brutality in the name of discovery by Wolfgang Kohler in the 1920s, and she also points the aimless nature of this type of abuses, since they bring no benefits to our society, rather they serve a ‘justification’ to feed the fragile ego of those who delight themselves with the ‘beauty’ of power. The experiment never addreses any psychological or physical damage the ape might experience, once again reinforcing our lack of empathy. Nonetheless, Sultan who was repeatedly deprived of his bananas until he figured a proper way into avoiding induced starvation. Confronted a variety of challenges in order to fulfil a basic biological need, but with the use of reason on his own way, Sultan succeeds and by demonstrating this elementary form of reasoning completely destroying this preconception that animals lack of reason, and hence, that trait that enables us to feel superior and with a right over others, get completely crushed.
Ultimately, this novel allows us to reconsider our behaviors towards others throughout history, towards animals, and in some regards towards our own specie.
- Is the abuse of animals justified by any means? Or is it a simply self-obtained behavior due to our Darwinian superiority?
- How does the phrase ‘treated as beast’ plays a role in the comparison of the Nazi Germany’s mistreatment of Jews with the abuses against animals?